This thread will explain in depth how the damage formula works and how it was derived. The information here was taken straight from the guides I wrote two years ago, but the damage formula has not changed at all since then. The guide will be split up into three sections. Section 1: Damage - More specifically, raw damage; the damage you do when an object has 0 defenses. Section 2: Defense - How enemy defense mitigates the raw damage that you deal. Section 3: Criticals - Criticals are simply 1.5x damage, but this section covers how you can calculate your average damage once you consider criticals For people who want to just plug in values for damage calculations: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1dsGWcrKtESPe5SPtv4zQunyiH7y8239takrUpZF5aFs/edit#gid=0 I still have to double check my work on this, but it should be mostly fine.